By Pierre Van Der Eng
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Extra info for Agricultural Growth in Indonesia: Productivity Change and Policy Impact since 1880
The biggest increases occurred during 1920-37. In the late 1930s, the remaining irrigated land was land where indigenous irrigation works functioned to satisfaction, or which was too remote to make improvements with public funds economically feasible. The quality of the services rendered by irrigation constructions depended on regular maintenance work. 1 will argue that maintenance was widely neglected during 1942-67. The data on (semi) technically irrigated land refer to the serviced areas and disregard the actual state 26 Agricultural Growth in Indonesia of the irrigation works.
In both Java and the Other Islands, 1900-37 and 1960-88 were phases of expansion, and 1880-1900 and 1937-60 were phases of stagnation. The reasons for expansion and stagnation were found in different production sectors. In Java pre-war expansion was largely due to non-rice food crops and estate crops, in particular sugar, and the 1960-88 per capita growth to compensate the 1937-60 setback was overwhelmingly rice-led. In the Other Islands the main factor explaining pre-war expansion was the production of farm cash crops, in particular rubber.
The choice of the population growth rate makes some difference to total production. But it does not affect the general trend, nor does it affect the estimate of per capita GVA. Agricultural subsistence production clearly dominated total agricultural output in the Other Islands, despite the rapid growth in the production of cash and estate crops. 2 Note: Annual average growth rates calculated from five-year averages, of which the first year is given. Sources: Appendices 1 and 2. 2 17 Barter terms of trade of cash-estate crops and food crops, 1880-1993 (1960=100) 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 -"— Five-Year Average Sources: Appendices 1 and 2.
Agricultural Growth in Indonesia: Productivity Change and Policy Impact since 1880 by Pierre Van Der Eng