By Edsger W. Dijkstra
He starts through contemplating the questions, «What is an algorithm?» and «What are we doing after we program?» those questions lead him to a fascinating digression at the semantics of programming languages, which, in flip, ends up in essays on programming language constructs, scoping of variables, and array references. Dijkstra then grants, as promised, a suite of lovely algorithms. those algorithms are a long way ranging, masking mathematical computations, different types of sorting difficulties, trend matching, convex hulls, and extra. simply because this is often an previous publication, the algorithms offered are often not the easiest to be had. although, the price in interpreting A self-discipline of Programming is to soak up and comprehend the way in which that Dijkstra thought of those difficulties, which, in many ways, is extra beneficial than 1000 algorithms.
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It’s difficult to get a grip on the extent to which these techniques are actually being used in practice (most companies are notoriously tight-lipped about how they protect their code), but we can gauge their level of interest from their patents and current patent applications. Microsoft owns several software watermarking [104,354], obfuscation [62,62,69,69,70,70,180,378], and birthmarking  patents. Intertrust holds a huge patent portfolio related to digital rights management, including patents on obfuscation [91,169] and tamperproofing .
We will propose a model that tries to apply ideas taken from the way plants, animals, and human societies have used surreptition to protect themselves against attackers to the way we can protect software from attack. We will be using this model in the rest of the book to classify software protection schemes that have been proposed in the literature. 3 Program Analysis An attack against a program typically will go through two stages: an analysis stage that gathers information about the program, and a transformation stage that makes modifications to the program based on the information that was collected.
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A Discipline of Programming by Edsger W. Dijkstra